Polyacrylateany of a number of synthetic resins produced by the polymerization of acrylic esters. Forming plastic materials of notable clarity and flexibility under certain methods, the polyacrylates are employed primarily in paints and other surface coatings, in adhesives, and in textiles. The most common polyacrylates are polyethyl acrylate and polymethyl acrylate. In the esterification reaction the hydrogen atom in the acidic carboxyl group CO 2 H on the acrylic acid molecule is replaced by an organic group—a methyl group CH 3 in reactions with methanol and an ethyl group CH 2 CH 3 in reactions with ethanol.
Both ethyl acrylate and methyl acrylate are flammable liquids that are prone to spontaneous polymerization, a reaction in which the acrylate molecules at this point called monomers link together to form long, multiple-unit molecules polymers. In commercial production, polymerization is conducted under the action of free-radical initiators, with the acrylates dissolved in a hydrocarbon solvent or dispersed in water by soaplike surfactants.
In the resulting polymer chain the acrylate repeating units have the following structure:. The dissolved or dispersed polymer can be further processed for use as a fibre modifier in textile manufacture, as a bonding agent in adhesives, or as a film-forming component in acrylic paints. Especially in surface coatings, polyacrylate formulations are hardened by copolymerizing the acrylate with other monomers such as methyl methacrylate or styrene.
Polyacrylates can be modified to produce a specialty rubber known as polyacrylate elastomer. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Polyacrylate polymer. See Article History. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Resinany natural or synthetic organic compound consisting of a noncrystalline or viscous liquid substance. Natural resins are typically fusible and flammable organic substances that are transparent or translucent and are yellowish to brown in colour.
They are formed in plant secretions and are soluble in various organic liquids but….
Polymerizationany process in which relatively small molecules, called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer. The monomer molecules may be all alike, or they may represent two, three, or more different compounds. Usually at least monomer molecules must be combined…. Acrylicany of a broad array of synthetic resins and fibres that are based on derivatives of acrylic and methacrylic acid.
History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.Poly methyl acrylate- its properties,preparation and use. Polymethylacrylate: — commonly known as PMApolymer of methyl acrylate.
Polymers based on acrylics were discovered before many other polymers that are now widely employed. Kahlbaum prepared polymethylacrylate.
The polymer separated from the glass as a clear plastic sheet, which Rohm gave the name Plexiglas.
Both Perspex and Plexiglas were commercialized in the s. Narrow composition heterogeneity was revealed from the light-scattering measurements in different solvents justified the use of a single solvent for the copolymer characterization.
In this reaction,0. Through several standard cycles of evacuation and backfilling with dry and pure nitrogen, the oxygen in the tube was removed. The volume of this reaction system was controlled at 7. When the reaction was completed, the polymerization was stopped by adding a little of HCl. The exhaustive extraction with acetone for 12 h was performed to remove the homopolymer in the crude graft copolymer. What is poly methyl acrylate? What is the molecular weight of poly methyl acrylate?
What is the glass transition temperature of poly methyl acrylate? Poly methyl acrylate belongs to which class of polymer?
About the Author: Sonali Patnaik. Comment Name Email Website. Pankaj Yadav says:. Fauzia Neshat says:.Poly methyl methacrylate PMMAalso known as acrylicacrylic glassor plexiglassas well as by the trade names CryluxPlexiglasAcryliteAstariglasLucitePerclaxand Perspexamong several others see belowis a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
The same material can be used as a casting resin or in inks and coatings, among many other uses. Although not a type of familiar silica -based glass, the substance, like many thermoplastics, is often technically classified as a type of glass in that it is a non-crystalline vitreous substance hence its occasional historical designation as acrylic glass.
Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. PMMA is an economical alternative to polycarbonate PC when tensile strengthflexural strengthtransparencypolishability, and UV tolerance are more important than impact strengthchemical resistance, and heat resistance. It is often preferred because of its moderate properties, easy handling and processing, and low cost.
Non-modified PMMA behaves in a brittle manner when under load, especially under an impact forceand is more prone to scratching than conventional inorganic glass, but modified PMMA is sometimes able to achieve high scratch and impact resistance.
The first acrylic acid was created in Methacrylic acidderived from acrylic acidwas formulated in The reaction between methacrylic acid and methanol results in the ester methyl methacrylate.
In the United States, E. During World War II both Allied and Axis forces used acrylic glass for submarine periscopes and aircraft windshields, canopies, and gun turrets. Common orthographic stylings include polymethyl methacrylate   and polymethylmethacrylate. It is a common mistake to use "an" instead of "en".
Although PMMA is often called simply "acrylic", acrylic can also refer to other polymers or copolymers containing polyacrylonitrile. PMMA is routinely produced by emulsion polymerizationsolution polymerizationand bulk polymerization.
Generally, radical initiation is used including living polymerization methodsbut anionic polymerization of PMMA can also be performed. PMMA is thus an organic glass at room temperature; i.
Thermal Dehydration and Miscibility of PHEMA/PMAA Blends
The forming temperature starts at the glass transition temperature and goes up from there. The highest quality PMMA sheets are produced by cell castingbut in this case, the polymerization and molding steps occur concurrently. The strength of the material is higher than molding grades owing to its extremely high molecular mass.
Rubber toughening has been used to increase the toughness of PMMA to overcome its brittle behavior in response to applied loads.
PMMA can be joined using cyanoacrylate cement commonly known as supergluewith heat weldingor by using chlorinated solvents such as dichloromethane or trichloromethane  chloroform to dissolve the plastic at the joint, which then fuses and sets, forming an almost invisible weld.
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Scratches may easily be removed by polishing or by heating the surface of the material. Laser cutting may be used to form intricate designs from PMMA sheets. PMMA vaporizes to gaseous compounds including its monomers upon laser cutting, so a very clean cut is made, and cutting is performed very easily. However, the pulsed lasercutting introduces high internal stresses along the cut edge, which on exposure to solvents produce undesirable "stress-crazing" at the cut edge and several millimetres deep.
Even ammonium-based glass-cleaner and almost everything short of soap-and-water produces similar undesirable crazing, sometimes over the entire surface of the cut parts, at great distances from the stressed edge. In the majority of applications, it will not shatter.
Rather, it breaks into large dull pieces. Since PMMA is softer and more easily scratched than glass, scratch-resistant coatings are often added to PMMA sheets to protect it as well as possible other functions. Methyl methacrylate " synthetic resin " for casting simply the bulk liquid chemical may be used in conjunction with a polymerization catalyst such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide MEKPto produce hardened transparent PMMA in any shape, from a mold.
Objects like insects or coins, or even dangerous chemicals in breakable quartz ampules, may be embedded in such "cast" blocks, for display and safe handling. PMMA is a strong, tough, and lightweight material. It has a density of 1.Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS.
The thermal degradation of a polymer blend composed of polystyrene PSt and poly itaconic acid derivatives was investigated by thermogravimetry TG in a nitrogen atmosphere. Poly itaconic anhydride PIAnan intermediate product in the thermal degradation of poly di- sec -alkyl itaconatewas prepared by the polymerization of the corresponding monomer and blended with PSt in various compositions.
Maecker and D. Yachigo, M. Sasaki, Y. Takahashi, F. Kojima, T. Tanaka, and T. Okita, Polym. Yachigo, F. Kojima, M. Sasaki, K. Ida, S. Tanaka, and K. Inoue, Polym. Yachigo, K. Ida, M. Inoue, and S. Tanaka, Polym. Ida, K. Inoue, S. Tanaka, Y. Honda, E. Fukuyo, and K. Yanagi, Polym. McNeil, L. Ackerman, and S. Gupta, J. McNeil and S. Gupta, Polym. Mori, A. Fukui, S. Aoki, and T. Otsu, Polym.These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days.
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Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Cite this: Macromolecules201 Article Views Altmetric. Citations PDF KB. Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is the article's first page. Cited By. This article is cited by publications. Katie L. Browning, Robert L. Sacci, Mathieu Doucet, James F. Browning, Joshua R. Kim, Gabriel M. DOI: Bejagam, Sanket A. Macromolecules52 13 Macromolecules50 16 Braun, and David G.
Macromolecules49 3 Macromolecules45 22 Langmuir28 5 Macromolecules44 18 Vikram K. Daga, Eric R. Anderson, Samuel P.H :May be corrosive to metals. H :Toxic in contact with skin. H :Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. H :May cause respiratory irritation. H :May cause damage to Respiratory System through prolonged or repeated exposure. H :Harmful to aquatic life. P :Keep only in original container.
P :Do not breathe mist, vapors or spray. P :Wash hands and face thoroughly after handling. P :Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. P :Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. P :Avoid release to the environment. P :Wear protective gloves, protective clothing, face protection.
Do NOT induce vomiting.
Immediately call a poison center or doctor. Rinse skin with water or shower. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P :Get medical advice or attention if you feel unwell. P :Absorb spillage to prevent material damage. Keep container tightly closed. P :Store locked up. P :Store in corrosive resistant bottle or metal container with a resistant inner liner. P :Dispose of contents and container in accordance with local, regional, national regulations e.
White or Colorless to Almost white or Almost colorless powder to lump to clear liquid. H :Combustible liquid. P :Keep away from flames and hot surfaces.It is often available as its sodium salt, poly methacrylic acid sodium salt. The monomer is a viscous liquid with a pungent odour. The first polymeric form of methacrylic acid was described in by Engelhorn and Fittig. The use of high purity monomers is required for proper polymerization conditions and therefore it is necessary to remove any inhibitors by extraction phenolic inhibitors or via distillation.
PMAA can acts as a polyelectrolyte and has the ability to absorb and retain water. These properties are strongly affected by the pH and therefore many hydrogels are composed of PMAA copolymers. The conventional synthesis method of PMAA is free radical polymerization. In aqueous solution, substantial differences have been described in the polymerization rate of non-ionized and fully ionized MAA pH effect. For the non-ionized scenario, a kinetic model has been well described.
With pulsed layer polymerization size-exclusion chromatography techniques, it was determined that there is a minor decrease for partially ionized MAA while when MAA is fully ionized, kp increases with higher concentration. The latter is in accordance with transition state theory for propagation. Protecting group chemistry is commonly used for the polymerization of acidic monomers using alkyl esters followed by deprotection and purification, but other methods have also been explored.
PMAA cyclization proved to be the main cause of termination,  and this was reduced by changing the leaving group and the nucleophilelowering the pH to reduce concentration and carboxylate anions, and accelerating the rate of polymerization. This work overcame one of the main limitations in ATRP and showed that water can be used as solvent for the polymerization of polar monomers using ATRP.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. CAS Number. Chemical formula.
Solubility in water. Handbook of polymer synthesis 2nd. Marcel Dekker. MRS Proceedings. Bibcode : MaMol. Transactions of the Faraday Society.